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The primary goals of stroke management are to reduce brain injury and promote maximum patient recovery. Rapid detection and appropriate emergency medical care are essential for optimizing health outcomes. When available, patients are admitted to an acute stroke unit for treatment. These units specialize in providing medical and surgical care aimed at stabilizing the patient's medical status. Standardized assessments are also performed to aid in the development of an appropriate care plan. Current research suggests that stroke units may be effective in reducing in-hospital fatality rates and the length of hospital stays.Stroke Rehabilitation BD Once a patient is medically stable, the main target of their recovery shifts to rehabilitation. Some patients are transferred to in-patient rehabilitation programs, whereas others could {also be|is also} cited out-patient services or home-based care. In-patient programs are typically expedited by associate knowledge domain team that will embody a physician, nurse, pharmacist, physical therapist, activity therapist, speech and language pathologist, psychologist, and recreation therapist. The patient and their family/caregivers also play an integral role on this team. Family/caregivers that are concerned within the patient care tend to be ready for the caregiving role because the patient transitions from rehabilitation centers. whereas at the rehabilitation center, the knowledge domain team makes certain that the patient attains their most useful potential upon discharge. the first goals of this sub-acute section of recovery embody preventing secondary health complications, minimizing impairments, and achieving functional goals that promote independence in activities of daily living. Stroke Rehabilitation BD In the later phases of stroke recovery, patients are encouraged to participate in secondary prevention programs for stroke. Follow-up is usually facilitated by the patient's primary care provider. 

The initial severity of impairments and individual characteristics, such as motivation, social support, and learning ability, are key predictors of stroke recovery outcomes. Responses to treatment and overall recovery of function are highly dependent on the individual. Current evidence indicates that most significant recovery gains will occur within the first 12 weeks following a stroke.Stroke Rehabilitation BD In 1620, Johann Jakob Wepfer, by studying the brain of a pig, developed the theory that stroke was caused by an interruption of the flow of blood to the brain.[page needed] After that, the focus became how to treat patients with stroke.Stroke Rehabilitation BD For most of the last century, people were discouraged from being active after a stroke. Around the 1950s, this attitude changed, and health professionals began prescription of therapeutic exercises for stroke patient with good results. At that point, a good outcome was considered to be achieving a level of independence in which patients are able to transfer from the bed to the wheelchair without assistance.Stroke Rehabilitation BD In the early 1950s, Twitchell began studying the pattern of recovery in stroke patients. He reported on 121 patients whom he had observed. He found that by four weeks, if there is some recovery of hand function, there is a 70% chance of making a full or good recovery. He reported that most recovery happens in the first three months, and only minor recovery occurs after six months. More recent research has demonstrated that significant improvement can be made years after the stroke.Stroke Rehabilitation BD Around the same time, Brunnstrom also described the process of recovery, and divided the process into seven stages. As knowledge of the science of brain recovery improved, intervention strategies have evolved. Knowledge of strokes and the process of recovery after strokes has developed significantly in the late 20th century and early 21st century.

Stroke Rehabilitation BD The idea for constraint-induced therapy is at least 100 years old. Significant research was carried out by Robert Oden. He was able to simulate a stroke in a monkey's brain, causing hemiplegia. He then bound up the monkey's good arm, and forced the monkey to use his bad arm, and observed what happened. After two weeks of this therapy, the monkeys were able to use their once hemiplegic arms again. This is due to neuroplasticity. He did the same experiment without binding the arms, and waited six months past their injury. The monkeys without the intervention were not able to use the affected arm even six months later. In 1918, this study was published, but it received little attention.Stroke Rehabilitation BD Eventually, researchers began to apply his technique to stroke patients, and it came to be called constraint-induced movement therapy. Notably, the initial studies focused on chronic stroke patients who were more than 12 months past their stroke. This challenged the belief held at that time that no recovery would occur after one year. The therapy entails wearing a soft mitt on the good hand for 90% of the waking hours, forcing use of the affected hand. The patients undergo intense one-on-one therapy for six to eight hours per day for two weeks.Stroke Rehabilitation BD Evidence that supports the use of constraint induced movement therapy has been growing since its introduction as an alternative treatment method for upper limb motor deficits found in stroke populations. Recently, constraint induced movement therapy has been shown to be an effective rehabilitation technique at varying stages of stroke recovery to improve upper limb motor function and use during activities of daily living. These may include, but are not limited to, eating, dressing, and hygiene activities. CIMT may improve motor impairment and motor function, but the benefits have not been found to convincingly reduce disability, with further research required. Using functional activities as part of the CIMT treatment has been shown to enhance functional outcomes in one’s activities of daily living. Occupational therapists are uniquely qualified to provide function-based treatment in conjunction with a CIMT approach. The greatest gains are seen among persons with stroke who exhibit some wrist and finger extension in the affected limb. Transcranial magnetic stimulation and brain imaging studies have demonstrated that the brain undergoes plastic changes in function and structure in patients that perform constraint induced movement therapy. These changes accompany the gains in motor function of the paretic upper limb. 

However, there is no established causal link between observed changes in brain function/structure and the motor gains due to constraint induced movement therapy.Stroke Rehabilitation BD Constraint induced movement therapy has recently been modified to treat aphasia in patients post CVA as well. This treatment intervention is known as Constraint Induced Aphasia Therapy (CIAT). The same general principals apply, however in this case, the client is constricted from using compensatory strategies to communicate such as gestures, writing, drawing, and pointing, and are encouraged to use verbal communication. Therapy is typically carried out in groups and barriers are used so hands, and any compensatory strategies are not seen. Stroke Rehabilitation BD Mental practice of movements, has been shown in many studies to be effective in promoting recovery of both arm and leg function after a stroke. It is often used by physical or occupational therapists in the rehab or homehealth setting, but can also be used as part of a patient's independent home exercise program. Mental Movement Therapy is one product available for assisting patients with guided mental imagery.Stroke Rehabilitation BD Such work represents a paradigm shift in the approach towards rehabilitation of the stroke-injured brain away from pharmacologic flooding of neuronal receptors and instead, towards targeted physiologic stimulation. In layman's terms, this electrical stimulation mimics the action of healthy muscle to improve function and aid in retraining weak muscles and normal movement. Functional Electrical Stimulation (FES) is commonly used in 'foot-drop' following stroke, but it can be used to help retrain movement in the arms or legs.Stroke Rehabilitation BD